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Heat pumps

A heat pump is a thermodynamic system that takes away the energy of one medium (usually a lower level), is passed on to another medium.

The very name of the “pump” speaks enough about what it actually is doing. Like any other, the heat pump raises the level. The water pump raises the water level at the expense of the energy consumed, and the heat pump raises the energy level at the expense of the energy taken from the other medium (usually water, air or soil). Heating with heat pumps can save up to 75% in relation to other types of heating.

The advantages of using a heat pump are as follows:
• Use renewable energy (geothermal energy is included in renewable energy sources),
• Use only 20-25% of electricity for your work,
• Does not require the use of a chimney (about 30% of the energy produced in the boiler on solid fuel, goes through a chimney),
• Automated operation
• Does not require any maintenance,
• There is no need to buy energy in advance,
• The ability to program work during a lower tariff,
• No open flame (no possibility of causing fire).

The room is heated by radiators, ventilation fans (fancoils) or underfloor heating. The highest savings are achieved by combining the heat pump and underfloor heating, as with the lowering of the temperature in the system, the heating coefficient increases significantly, and it is known that underfloor heating requires lower temperatures than the radiator.
On the other hand, the fan coil is a good solution because the proctor is possible and heated and cooled, which is not the case in floor and radiator heating.
For the user it is most important to know that using a heat pump for heating space and sanitary water can achieve significant savings.



The heat pump technology is similar to that of a refrigerator, but with a reversed principle. In a single circular process (Cornwall process), the heat extracted from groundwater is transferred to a working medium (gas R22) which is compressed and fed to a higher temperature level. In this way, the seamless heat of the earth and air turns into useful energy for the purpose of heating.

The process of the heat pump operation can be divided into four basic steps:
1. In the evaporator, the working medium, gas R22, is supplied with groundwater heat, the gas is heated to 3 to 7 ° S, evaporated and transferred from liquid to gaseous aggregate state.
2. The working medium is then compressed in the compressor, due to which the pressure and temperature of 65 ° S increases. For this process, 25% of additional (electric) energy is needed. T
3. The thermal energy obtained by compressing the working medium is directly transmitted to the starting water of our heating system. In this way, the medium is subdued, condensed and converted into a liquid state.
4. Through decompressed working media in the expansion valve, due to a sudden drop in pressure, the working medium is considerably cooled down so that it is again able to receive heat from the water.

If your land is suitable for this purpose, the use of groundwater via suction and discharge sources of groundwater can be very effective. Groundwater is a very good reservoir of sun-fed energy and even maintains a constant temperature between 8 ° S and 15 ° S during winter days. Groundwater is not everywhere in sufficient quantity and quality, but where conditions are met, the utilization is high.

Heat source – groundwater

Groundwater is the most reliable source of accumulated heat, since it maintains a constant temperature of 8 ° -15 ° S and gives the highest possible effect of heat exploitation. In order to exploit the mentioned heat, it is necessary to have an exploitative source of groundwater from which the water is transported to the heat pump and the absorbent tank / well in which the cooled water returns. The returned water does not change its chemical composition, and the water drop does not spin, the same amount of water returns to another busotin. Water remains completely ecological cyst (uninstalled). The suction and discharge wells are installed at a minimum distance of 10m. When using this heat source, the use of an additional heat exchanger is recommended in cases where the quality of groundwater exceeds some of the recommended values. In addition, damage caused by inadequate maintenance of primary flow (accumulation of deposits, sludge or freezing, in direct drive without honey exchangers can be total and not subject to warranty period.

The installation of interchangeers can not prevent drainage (the user must constantly execute the water filter control), but the application is much safer and easier to maintain. The interchangeable can be easily disassembled and, if necessary, cleaned.

When designing such systems, one should pay attention to the following:
– provide an additional amount of groundwater at a depth of approx. 30 meters
– the maximum amount of water that can be exhausted and the quality of the water is of great importance
– the suction well for pumping water must be set in the direction of flow of groundwater, ie in front of the well outlet
– exploitation of the heat of groundwater must be approved by the department responsible for the water economy.

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